Стилистика английского языка: конспект лекций для студентов филологических специальностей (стр. 1 )

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СТОЛИЧНЫЙ ИНСТИТУТ ПЕРЕВОДЧИКОВ

Т. Д. Ш У В Е Р О В А

С Т И Л И С Т И К А

АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА:

конспект лекций для студентов филологических специальностей

МОСКВА

2003

Методические рекомендации

по работе с программным и терминологическим материалом пособия.

Учебно-методическое пособие составлено в соответствии с государственным образовательным стандартом высшего профессионального образования, утвержденным 14, номер государственной регистрации 63 лг / дс, на правление подготовки дипломированного специалиста 620100 – Лингвистика и межкультурная коммуникация.

Пособие содержит в значительной степени расширенные программы к последовательно раскрываемым темам лекционного курса, а также дефиниции основных категорий и базовых терминов данной теоретической дисциплины, наиболее важные лингвостилистические характеристики изучаемого языка. В результате, изложение материала обнаруживает определенную стилевую эклектику, что, по мнению автора, компенсируется объемом представленной информации и современными подходами к проблемам стилистики. Цель пособия - обеспечить концептуальную ориентировку в сложных проблемах современной стилистики, представить самые известные концепции, наметить наиболее важные линии для самостоятельного изучения разделов данного теоретического курса.

Пособие адресовано, в первую очередь, студентам-старшекурсникам филологических факультетов, предстающим перед непростой проблемой выбора адекватно отражающей современные подходы литературы к курсу, подбору соответствующего учебника или, скорее, комбинирования нескольких учебных пособий, так как, несмотря на множество вновь издаваемых учебников, практически невозможно указать тот единственный, который бы полностью отвечал концептуальным подходам, которые прослеживаются в новой программе курса. Именно поэтому в тексте пособия приводятся ссылки на авторов предлагаемых для изучения концепций, а в списке рекомендованной литературы указаны источники. Изучающим данный курс рекомендуется не только теоретические источники и фундаментальные исследования, но и литература, имеющая прикладной, практический характер, наиболее современная справочная литература.




Методика работы с программным и терминологическим материалом пособия проста и очевидна. Многие из положений, хотя и раскрытые через конкретику лингвистических фактов, проиллюстрированные примерами и расшифрованные терминологически, нуждаются в дополнительной концептуализации на базе указанных в списке рекомендованной литературы источников. Материал пособия представляет собой терминологический и тематический конспект авторского лекционного курса, прочитанного в Столичном Институте Переводчиков. Он рассчитан на использование студентами в качестве плана—конспекта при закрепления материала в процессе самостоятельной внеаудиторной работы.

Словарь стилистических и литературных терминов составлен, с учетом представлений об объеме стилистической терминологии, необходимом студентам-филологам на данном этапе освоения стилистики, а также исходя из интересов автора лекционного курса к определенному эмпирическому материалу, в частности вторичным жанрам, комическим и сатирическим жанрам, а также поэтическим жанрам.

Introduction

­­­­­­­­ The manual is compiled in accordance with the state educational standard of higher vocational education adopted on 14.03.2000 in the sphere of professional training “ 620100 Linguistics and Cross-Cultural Communication”.

The manual contains thematic material on the consecutively developed topics of the course as well as the definitions of the main categories, basic terms of the given theoretic branch of science, and the most important linguistic and stylistic notions. As a result the material arrangement is to a certain degree eclectic, but is counterbalanced by the amount of the information and modern approaches to the problems of stylistics. The purpose of the manual is to ensure conceptual knowledge of complex problems of modern stylistics, to present the most essential notions, to delineate the most important guidelines for self-study of the sections of the given theoretic course.




The manual is first of all addressed to the senior students of linguistic departments who encounter the problem of choosing an appropriate textbook which adequately reflects modern literary approaches to the course of study or rather combining several manuals as in spite of the abundance of new publications, it is practically impossible to make reference to the single resource which would be completely adequate to the conceptual approaches of the new syllabus. That is why the manual makes reference to numerous authors and resources suggested for conceptual study and listed in Recommended Literature.

Methods of work with the material of the manual are simple and clear. Many of the postulates, though revealed through concrete linguistic data, supplied with examples and deciphered, still demand additional conceptualization on the basis of the enlisted recommended literature. The contents of the manual is a kind of terminological and thematic synopsis of the author’s lectures delivered at the Moscow Translators Institute. It is intended to be used by students as an outline and synopsis in their independent work.

The glossary of stylistic and literary terms is compiled to meet the demand of stylistic terminology, necessary for the students for stylistic readings, with tribute to the author’s interest in certain empiric material: derived, comic and satiric genres, as well as poetry.

C O N T E N T S

1. Stylistics as a Linguistic Science. The Subject Matter of Stylistics. Methods of Stylistic Investigation Stylistics and Other Linguistics Sciences




2. The Main Trends in Stylistic Investigation: Linguistic Stylistics Functional Stylistics. Expressive Stylistics

3. Text Stylistics. Basic Text Categories. Types of Foregrounding.

4. Language and Style. Functional and Stylistic Aspects of the Language

5. The Stylistic Level of Linguistics Analysis. Style: Problems of Definition

6. Stylistic Meaning Stylistic Function. . Stylistic Device Classification of Stylistic Devices

Expressive Stylistic Devices and Imagery

7. Norm and Variation in Language. Language Norm and Language Culture. Levels of Language Culture

Territorial Dialects. Dialectal History of the English Language. Dialects of Contemporary Great Britain

8. British English Today : Linguistic Situation. Standard English. The Formation of National Standard

9. Variants of the English Language. American English.

10. Social Dialects. Functional Stylistic Classification of the English Vocabulary

11. Functional Stylistic Differentiation of the Language. Functional Style: Problems of Definition. Criteria in Classification of Functional Styles

12. The Word-Stock of Modern English and its Stylistic Impact

13. Stylistic Resources of Modern English Morphology

14. Stylistic Resources of Modern English Phraseology

15. Stylistic Resources of Modern English Syntax

16. The Style of Fiction: Functional and Stylistic Peculiarities Language Means. Genres

17. Publicist Style Functional and Stylistic Peculiarities. Genres

18. Scientific Style: Functional and Linguistic Peculiarities. Language Means Genres




19. The Style of Official Documents: Functional and Stylistic Peculiarities. Language Means.

20. Colloquial Style: Functional and Linguistic Peculiarities Language Means. Genres

21. Lexical Stylistic Devices of the English Language

22. Syntactic Stylistic Devices of the English Language

23. Phonetic Stylistic Devices

24. Oratory Stylistic Peculiarities and Functions. Public speeches. Levels of Speech Culture.

Part I Linguistic Stylistics. Basic Categories of Style Analysis

Stylistics as a Linguistic Science. The object of style studies: expressive functions and expressive means of different language levels, their stylistic meanings and connotations, communicative laws of discourse (speech peculiarities of the text or a certain type of texts). Tasks: analysis of the evolution of styles in connection with the history of literary standard, investigation into the language of fiction and its development, universal laws of literary composition (including poetics), genres of communication (pragmatic approach).

Linguistic ‘Stylistics’ in different scholastic interpretations ( due to divergence of approaches and complex nature of the object of study):

Descriptive stylistics as the study of units larger than a sentence, i. e. the arrangement of sentences, their grouping in paragraphs / A. A. Hill /;

Text Stylistics – close to text grammar, structural study of regularities in text composition / W. Hendricks /

contrasted to the functional concept of stylistic variation, i. e. the author’s free choice of the ways and forms of text composition;




Linguistic Stylistics (in the narrow meaning), presented by: a) the functional theory of the Prague Linguistic Circle, pointing out the correlation between textual and non-textual ( universal linguistic, “coding” etc. ) language subsystems defined as “communicative,” “functional” styles ( close to socio-linguistic approaches); b) Ch. Balli’s doctrine of functional choice postulating that language registers many synonymous forms and rows of synonyms constituted by one neutral unit and the rest marked by additional stylistic connotations / expressive, low colloquial and familiar or elevated, bookish, high/;

Pragmatic stylistics as universal theory of language in use /G. O.Vinokur/, in accordance with the general tendency in linguistics in the 1950-s to investigate ” language in use” /E. Benvenist/;

Poetics viewed as investigation into the national language in connection with the language of fiction /V. V. Vinogradov, L. Spitzer/; as “a historic science integrated with literary criticism ” /V. V. Vinogradov/ which studies the interaction of the literary language and different styles of literature. The central statement of V. V.Vinogradov’s theory proves that the styles of realism could evolve only on the basis of developed national standard, the literary Russian language of the 19th century, in particular.

Ideostylistics ( stylistics of individual speech) as investigation of the author’s style or the style of a literary work. Stylistics of decoding and stylistics of perception as the analysis of problems of text interpreting. (also in the paragraph The Main Trends in the History of Stylistic Investigation). The analysis of linguistic representation of the author’s image in fiction as one of the central problems.




Linguostylistics as comparison of the national standard and the system of the language with functional styles and dialects, investigation of the elements of language into their potential to express and provoke emotions, additional associations and evaluation \I. V. Arnold\. Problems of Linguostylistics: 1) definition of style and functional style; 2).ascertaining functional regularities for the units of different language levels, their stylistic meanings and connotations \ M. N.Kozhina\.

Text Stylistics as a field (aspect) of linguostylistic research of the structural-semantic organization of the text (a group of texts); its compositional-stylistic types and forms, constructive and stylistic devices, functions of textual and before-textual systems of units, their role in the construction and expression of contents of the text, its stylistic peculiarities \ M. N. Kozhina\, i. e. the study of the functions, style peculiarities of types and units of the text \G. J. Solganik\. Text stylistics as research of a virtual text and text typology. Peculiarities of Text Stylistics : research of textual units; study of the virtual texts; analysis of the contents of the text. Text interpretation as a linguistic discipline investigating: 1) actualization of language means of different levels of language hierarchy, i. e. the horizontal, level structure of the text; 2) ways of actualizing textual categories – the category of limitation, coherence: (formal integrity) and cohesion (integrity of contents), the category of retrospect and prospect, chronotop (local – temporal reference), anthropocentricity, information, systematization, integrity (completeness), modality, pragmatic orientation (disposition), \ a level of the text, 3) vertical, ‘penetrating’ structure of the text: types of presentation \compositional speech forms\ (V. A. Kucharenko).




Peculiarities of Functional Stylistics: research of before-textual units; study of text typology; no emphasis on the contents in the analysis of speech typology

Stylistics of language and stylistics of speech \О. С. Ahmanova\. Stylistics of language as research of language subsystems with their specific word-stock, phraseology and syntax, analysis of expressive, emotional and evaluative potential of various language means. Stylistics of speech as research of texts, ways and forms of expressing some contents in them according to grammatical and stylistic norms and on the basis of meaningful deviations \I. V. Arnold\. Literary stylistics as a branch of literary criticism, studying language potential in imaginative reflection of reality in fiction.

Theoretical stylistics as research of the speech act and text, built up of three parts, correlated with the speech act components:

Author’s Stylistics \ genetic stylistics” \, research of the author's choice of speech forms, the author’s message and its realization.

Immanent stylistics as research of the inner construction of the text, realization of the laws of the given speech genre.

Stylistics of the addressee (stylistics of perception) as investigation of the addressee’s interpretation of the author’s message, as well as the “image of the addressee” or “ the addressee factor” itself.

Practical stylistics as the basis of teaching the norms of a native or foreign language. Tasks of practical stylistics: development of style perception, introduction into the norms of functional styles, the formation of the skill of designing a coherent text according to its functional and language peculiarities. General stylistics as a discipline, investigating universal laws: stylistic resources and universal laws of language functioning as a whole. Stylistics of particular languages as a research of regularities characteristic of English, German, Russian, etc or a group of related languages (Germanic languages, Slavic languages, Turkic languages and etc.). Comparative stylistics as the study of stylistic resources and functional regularities of the language on the basis of comparison of related languages. Synchronic and diachronic stylistics. Synchronic and diachronic principles of the stylistic description. Historical or diachronic stylistics as investigation into the processes of functional styles formation and other speech forms in connection with the social order and changing extra-linguistic factors of style formation, historic development of stylistic language systems.




Methods of Stylistic Research. Comparative-historical (diachronic) method. Method of linguistic observation in stylistics. Method of oppositional analysis in stylistics. Types of oppositions: binary, private, gradual and equipollent oppositions. Binary oppositions: definition of the members of opposition as the strong marked member, the weak unmarked member, the base of the opposition, distinctive features of the opposition. Research techniques of structural linguistics. Distributive method in plimentary distribution (various, non-interchangeable position of language units). Contrastive distribution (identical, interchangeable positions of language units). Contextual method. Minimal and maximal context. “Vertical context”. Transformational method in stylistics. Basic transformations in stylistic analysis (functional, diachronic transforms). Analysis into immediate constituents. Methods of substitutions in stylistics. Semantic methods of research: ‘sem’ or component analysis in the description of the semantic structure of the word and word combination. Statistical methods in stylistics.

Stylistics and Other Linguistic Sciences.. Stylistics and social sciences.. Sociolinguistics as investigation into the problem of language and society, the influence of society on the language and linguistic situations in the society. Psycholinguistics as the study of psychology of speech production and perception, mechanisms of control, ensuring language capacity and competence; ethnolinguistics, neurolinguistics, applied linguistics. Stylistics and theory of information and cybernetics, statistics, theory of knowledge and representation of knowledge in language. Stylistics and literary criticism, poetics, study of folklore as the study of the interaction of language with the systems of national art and culture. Place and role of stylistics in the system of linguistic sciences. Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines; linguistics (as methodological discipline), history of language, grammar, phonology, lexicology, plex linguostylistic disciplines in the process of differentiation and integration in the system of linguistic knowledge. Phonostylistics as research of the use of phonetic means in particular communicative situations determined by the situational extra-linguistic factors, defined as phonetic style-forming factors. Tasks of phonostylistics: the analysis of the oral form of speech to reveal segmental and supra-segmental phonetic means, typical of the given context; their typology and functional classification \ M. V. Sokolova\. Lexical stylistics as the study of stylistic functions of vocabulary \ words and phraseological units \, the stylistic potential of words belonging to various strata of vocabulary \ dialect words, terms, neologisms, word-forming models, semantics of the word. Grammatical stylistics: morphological and syntactic stylistics. Morphological stylistics as research of stylistic potential of grammatical morphological categories \ categories of number, aspect, time, mood, degrees of comparison etc \. Syntactic stylistics: the study of the stylistic potential of basic syntactic categories




\ word order, types of sentences, types of syntactic relations... \; figures of speech (purposeful deviation from stylistic norms); stylistic functions of syntactic delimitation and structuralization of the text \ principles, volume and structure its parts and units - paragraphs, chapters, etc. The role of stylistics as the theoretical basis of speech culture; "Stylistics is a kind of top research in language, the theoretical basis of development in the national culture of speech " \ V. V. Vonogradov\.

The Main Trends in the History of Stylistic Investigation. Modern scientific paradigms: stylistics and hermeneutics. Hermeneutics (from Greek hermeneutikos - explaining, interpreting), a philosophical discipline, Bible interpretation up to the XIX century, and then represented as a scientific method of “spiritual” sciences, asserting the principle of plurality in interpreting verity in contrast to strict determinism. Stylistics of decoding as a theoretical informational approach to stylistic problems, a science studying those aspects of the utterance \ text, which provide the addressee (the person receiving and decoding the message), with the image of ideas of the person sending the message. Theory of the information as a general theory of communication \K. Shannon \. Concept of information (the inner contents of the process of reflecting the features of one object as causing change in the properties of the other). Regular and chaotic reflection \ human perception and cybernetic systems\. Analogy of art creativity and perception with cybernetic processes. Cybernetics as a science studying control (regulation) systems. Aesthetic values as regulation systems. Imaginative-cognitive function of aesthetic values as regulation (control) of perception. Coding as reflection of the condition of one physical system with the help of the other. A code as a set of meaningful units and rules of their arrangement intended for sending messages. A message as a set of reflected, fixed at some period of time properties of the source of information \ in stylistics it is the text or its properties having aesthetic value \. A signal as a temporary process reflecting the message ( in language communication an integrative complex of phonetic, lexical, morphological and syntactic means). Volume disproportion of the impact of a signal and its energy. The system of information transmission ( in stylistics "the author – the reader model"): 1) the source of information ( the sender) creating the message or a sequence of messages to be received by the addressee; 2) the transmitter, transforming the message into signals appropriate to the characteristics of the channel; 3) the channel as media for signal transmission from the transmitter to the receiver ( ideal channels and “noise” channels); 4) the receiver which is carrying out operations, opposite to operations performed by the transmitter, restoring the message by way of deciphering the signals; 5) addressee as a person, for whom the message is intended. The formula of Shannon to calculate the volume of information. The alphabet of the message as the list of all possible messages. The volume of information in terms of uncertainty, entropy, degree informational demand the addressee of the information has. Entropy of the system Relevance of Shannon’s formula for stylistics. Predictability \ unpredictability textual elements, increase of choice as the law of text organization in fiction. The opportunity of meaningful deviation in fiction. Predictability as the basis of expressiveness. Stylistics of decoding as interpretation of correctness of comprehension, absence of distortions in decoding. Synthesis is the unity of parts and the whole as a basis of the stylistic analysis. Linguostylistics (Sch. Bally, M. N. Kogina, I. B. Golub). Stylistics of the text (G. Y. Solganic) \ also in the paragraph Style Studies as Linguistic Science\.




Language and Style. Language and speech. The two-aspect nature of language: the system and its functioning, the static and of the dynamic aspects, 1а langue – la parole \ F. de Sassure\; ergon ( ‘pantry’, ‘product’, a set of language units) and energia - use of language, “usus” \ W. Humboldt \. Language of a certain community as a system of elements of different levels ( inventory ) plus the system of functional rules in the use of these units, rules of generating a meaningful utterance (grammar) realized in the infinite set of elements and rules, variety of the phenomena of speech. Speech as the form of language existence. A speech act as a bilateral process including speaking and simultaneous parallel process of acoustic perception and listening comprehension. A speech act as realization of speech activity. A text as a product of a speech act. A text as a " speech product " of any length \from one word up to the whole story, poem, book.

Speech Language

( Speech activity) (language system)

The acts the acts of inventory + grammar

of speaking of understanding (the system of units) (system of rules)

Texts (utterances)

The author’s prehension of speech. Stylistics of perception. Conditions speech comprehension (constructions of elements, forms and meanings known to the addressee, connection of these elements into a meaningful unity according to certain rules, familiar to the addressee).

Style and the Functional Aspect of the Language. The concept of the communicative nature of stylistic values: " Language validity gives us an opportunity to be convinced that in stylistics the most adequate object of research is not so much a static state of stylistic resources of language, but a dynamic presentation, revealing the use of these elements by the society... The laws of the language usage in the society form the domain of stylistics (not as material, but as the object)” \ T. G. Vonokur\. Functions of the language. The communicative function: language as a means of communication. Verbal and non-verbal communication. Inter-subjective character of human communication. Particular functions: statement (neutral message about the fact), interrogation (inquiry about the fact), appeal (appeal, inducement to action), expressive function (expression of moods, emotions), contact (establishment and maintenance of contact), meta-linguistic function (interpretation of the language facts), aesthetic, function, socio - and ethno-identification (indication of belonging to certain social - professional, class, ethnic group). Thought-forming\ cognitive \ function. Interrelation of language, will and bination and interaction of functions in the structure of an utterance, a text. The multifunctional character of an utterance, a text.




Stylistic Level of Linguistic Analysis. Language as an abstract system, levels of language system (phoneme, morpheme, word, sentence \ statement). An opportunity of allocation of a stylistic level in the system of language levels. Stylistic in the language as: a subsystem of different leveled stylistic acceptance (lexico-semantic, word-building, phraseological, grammatical and also actually textual). Stylistics of acceptance as an aspect of the language usage, shown at all levels of the language system, and that is why not making a special level of the language. Stylistic in the language is characteristics of text organization, which correspond to an expediency principle and are used for expressiveness, efficiency of the statement according to a complex of its extralinguistic bases, including the contents. A stylistic level of the analysis. Stylistic distinctions in the language. Functional-stylistic distinctions as a version of internal distinctions in the language, as a reflection of the process of the language functioning in various areas of human activity and, accordingly, adaptation to the various forms of human activity.

The Notion "Style": Problems of Definition. Style in terms of cultural investigations. Style as an aesthetic parameter of art, ensuring art perform the function of a code of culture. Style as a type of the art form organization in accordance with its contents and aimed at its expression. Style as information with no objective reflection of reality, but revealing the measure and character of its refraction by art, the way of its imaginative transformation. Determination of style by the character of culture. Style of the epoch (as a reflection of the culture of ha certain period). National style, the style of school of art (as a reflection of culture of this or that social group). Individual style (as a reflection of general culture, the insight of an artist). Style as “the art language” of culture. The problem of the culture and style as the problem of meaning and sign, information and code. Relevance of the coding function of style: 1) in representation of certain culture by one or several styles; 2) in the structure of the style or styles; 3) in the ratio of style and artistic method. Unity of style (the art of Ancient Egypt, Ancient Greece, Roman or Medieval Gothic art of Western Europe). Multi-stylistic character of art (Renaissance, art of XX century, individual art creativity of P. Pikasso, M. Bulgakov, S. Shostakovich). Style as an expression of “a way of the world vision” \G. Velflin\. Styles as social-psychological systems. Dialectics of style and method as an interaction of regular, homeostatic and dynamic tendencies in art. \М. S. Каgаn\.




Style in Linguo-Stylistics. "Style" and human activity. Style as rational and purposeful phenomenon. Style as a systematic phenomenon. Style as a phenomenon of culture, municative, linguistic essence of style. Address in style ( with regard to peception). Style as “ the properties, characteristics of ‘the plane of contents’, determined by the extra-linguistic factors and realized in a specific text composition ( a system of material elements), specific arrangement of language units \ M. N.Kozhina\. Style as the reflection of the mode of thinking in the peculiarities of speech composition. Style as the combination of language means having the same connotations ( in stylistics of resources).

Style in Functional Stylistics. Functional style as “having social relevance, functionally determined, displaying inner coherence combination of ways of usage, choice and combination of means of speech communication in the domain of a certain national language, correlated with other ways of expression of the same type, which attain other aimsand fulfill other functions in the social communicative experience of the people”\V. V.Vinogradov\. Fuctional style as the arrangement of language means in speech ( in the text)? Built up as the result appearance of the principles of language means choice and combination in a certain sphere of communication in accordance with the tasks and conditions of communication \ M. N.Kozhina\. The extra-linguistic basis of a functional style, i. e. the tasks and aims of communication in a certain sphere of communication, determined by the purpose of the correlated form of public thinking, a type of mentality, current in the sphere, typical patterns of contents. Systematic character of a functional style in speech ( functional stylistic correlation of the units on the basis of common communicative purport).




Stylistic Meaning in terms of the contemporary approaches to the lexical meaning of the word. Cognitive, conceptual – denotational (reference to a certain object) and designative (reference to a notion ) meaning of the word as well as the connotational meaning of the word ( additional meanings – emotional, evaluative, expressive, associative which contribute to a special ‘colouring’ of the word). Stylistic meaning as a component of the pragmatic meaning of the word, an element of the implicational structure of the lexical meaning of the word \]M. V.Nikitin\. Stylistic meaning as a component of the connotational meaning of the word \I. V.Arnold\. The main connotations of the word: evaluative, emotional, expressive, stylistic. The notion of stylistic reference. The notion of stylistic connotation: expressive and functional properties, additional to the cognitive and grammatical meaning which limit the use of the unit within a certain sphere of communication and thus capable of expressing some stylistic information \ M. N.Kozhina\. Expressive and evaluative components of meaning as elements of connotation ( the emotive component). Differentiation of emotive components (connotation) and words having stylistic :’colouring’( those having the emotional component and stylistic reference as elements of the semantic structure of the word) \ V. I.Shahovsky\. Stylistic meaning as the ‘usus’ meaning (revealed in the use of a language unit)\T. G.Vinokur\. Stylistic meaning as a component of sense, actualized in the use of the language unit. And making it a style-forming element in the speech system of a certain speech form \ M. N.Kozhina\. Stylistic reference a special stylistic ‘mark’ of the word, a indication of reference to a certain sphere of communication. The notion of stylistic significance. Stylistic significance of language means and ways of their usage, contributing to the expressiveness of speech, efficiency in realizing the communicative purport in a certain sphere of communication, its stylistic peculiarities, generally created by the units, stylistically marked in the language system (non-contextual marking) and those developing stylistic in a certain context.




Stylistic Function. Stylistic function as the expressive impact of language units \ I. V.Arnold\. Properties of stylistic function: integration ( as the result of interrelation of elements of different language levels), accumulation ( redundancy, several parallel ways of expression), irradiation ( the spread of stylistic effects over the adjoining part of the text). Non-explicit forms of expression. Types of fore-grounding: convergence (concentration of several stylistic devices at some point of the text); coupling ( similarity of elements in equivalent textual positions ensuring the integrity of the text); the effect of deceived expectancy ( contract of the elements with low and high degree of predictability), antithesis (contrast).

Stylistic Device. Stylistic devices of the language: a)functionally marked; b)expressively marked. Functionally marked stylistic devices: bookish ( in scientific, official, publicist styles and fiction) neutral and colloquial ( in colloquial, low colloquial and vulgar speech). Expressively marked means of the language – units with vivid emotional-expressive shades of meaning ( ironical, derogative, sarcastic, disapproving, pejorative, affectionate, diminutive, etc.).Imagery: tropes and figures of speech. Imagery and expressive means of the language/ Imagery – all types of imaginative use of words, word-combinations and phonemes in description, mainly lexical ones ( metaphor, metonymy, hyperbole, litotes, irony, periphrasis). Expressive means of the language ( figures of speech) are not based on imagery and contribute to the emphasis and emotional intensification in speech with the help of syntactical constructions: inversion, rhetoric questions, asyndeton, polysyndeton, syntactical transposition. Imagery as paradigmatic means of the language ( based on the association of words with those, close in meaning, and thus potentially possible, but not represented in the text). Expressive means of the language as syntagmatic ( based on the linear position and dependant on it. Classification of stylistic devices: phonetic devices (alliteration assonance, dissonance, rhyme, rhythm, metre); lexical devices ( metaphor, metonymy, hyperbole, litotes, irony, periphrasis, personification, antonomasia); syntactical stylistic devices inversion, rhetoric questions, asyndeton, polysyndeton, syntactical transposition. Image as the reflection of reality in the conscience of a man/ Psycological interpretation of the image: image as psychic reproduction, reminiscence of experienced sensations and perception/ The important property of image “ in the reflection of reality is its practical creative impact, restoring the information, conveyed by the reality in a new form. Artistic image: unique, irrational, emotional, expressive character, subjective evaluation. Semantic models of producing imagery.




Norm and Variation in Language. The dynamic character of norm. The static aspect ( the system of language units) and dynamics ( language functioning). Language norm in its dynamic aspect as “socially and historically determined result of speech activity, fixing traditional realizations of the system and creating new language facts, revealing connections with the potential capacities of the language system and the existing patterns”. Variation of language units:“ variants within the limits of the norm” as the basis of stylistic choice: synonymic means of the language. stylistic variation of the word ( allo-lexemes). Functional nature of norm \V. V.Vinogradov\. “ The conformity of expression to the literary standard is the function of communicative-stylistic validity of the utterance, functional style, jenre. Functional validity of a language unit, as the most important criterion in establishing the conformity of the unit to the norm... as language is a means of communication and communication always has a purpose” \A. A.Leontiev\. The principle of communicative validity the basis of assigning the norm \ .G. Kostomarov, A. A.Leontiev\. Literary standard as the model variant of the national language, the result of reasonably applied rules, i. e. norm “Literary language – the sum total of all the realizations of the language system adopted by the society at a certain stage of its development and thought of as correct and model” \N. N.Semenuck\. Basic oppositions revealing normative co-relations in the language:

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