Стилистика, английский язык (стр. 1 )

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РОССИЙСКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ ПЕДАГОГИЧЕСКИЙ

УНИВЕРСИТЕТ им. А. И. ГЕРЦЕНА

ВОЛХОВСКИЙ ФИЛИАЛ

КАФЕДРА ФИЛОЛОГИЧЕСКОГО ОБРАЗОВАНИЯ

СТИЛИСТИКА

АНГЛИЙСКИЙ ЯЗЫК

Учебно-методическое пособие

Волхов

2012

ББК 81.2 Англ – 3я73

УДК 811.111’373

Л – 43

Печатается по решению Ученого Совета Волховского филиала РГПУ им.

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Настоящее пособие предназначено для студентов IV курса специальности 050303 «Иностранный язык (английский)» и направлений «Филологическое образование», «Педагогическое образование» с профилем «Иностранный язык».

Пособие отражает современные тенденции и требования к обучению преподавателей английского языка. Оно включает в себя ключевые вопросы лекционных занятий, планы семинарских занятий, задания контрольных работ, методические указания по организации контроля и самостоятельной работы студентов, вопросы к экзамену, англо-русский терминологический словарь, тематику курсовых работ и списки литературы. Результаты освоения дисциплины оцениваются по балльно-рейтинговой системе, которая представлена в технологической карте. Курс читается на английском языке.

Введение

Предметом изучения дисциплины являются стилистические явления английского языка – стилистически окрашенные языковые единицы, их функционирование в тексте и функциональные стили.

Целью курса является обучение студентов основным теоретическим вопросам и практическому умению анализировать англоязычный художественный текст с целью выявления стилистических явлений и характеристики их стилистических функций.




Задачи изучения дисциплины:

-  ознакомление с основными теоретическими проблемами стилистики;

-  создание у студентов представления об иерархической организации стилистических средств в языке;

-  ознакомление студентов с англоязычными текстами различных функциональных стилей;

-  развитие умения выявлять и анализировать стилистические средства в англоязычном тексте;

-  развитие умения излагать теоретические проблемы стилистики на английском языке;

-  развитие умения глубинного понимания англоязычного художественного текста

В результате изучения материала дисциплины студенты должны:

·  иметь представление о специфике стилистики как лингвистической науке;

·  знать основные теоретические положения;

·  уметь излагать теоретические вопросы стилистики на английском языке;

·  уметь выявлять и анализировать стилистические средства в англоязычном тексте;

·  уметь определять принадлежность текста к функциональному стилю.

Теоретические знания, приобретаемые студентами в ходе изучения дисциплины, детализируют общетеоретические лингвистические знания студентов – будущих преподавателей английского языка и составляют теоретическую основу навыков и умений владения иностранным языком. Практические навыки стилистического анализа позволяют углубить знания всех уровней английского языка и совершенствовать навыки чтения англоязычных текстов.

Содержание

Ключевые вопросы лекционного курса




Topic 1. Introduction

Stylistics as a linguistic discipline:

The object and subject of Stylistics; its foundation and development; Stylistics and other linguistic disciplines; Stylistics of Decoding and the theory of information, General and Functional Stylistics, the structure of Stylistics; Paradigmatics and Syntagmatics in Stylistics.

Part 1 General Stylistics

Topic 2

Categories of Stylistics: Style; Norm and Neutrality; Literary Norm, Language and Speech; Variant and Invariant; Selection and Combination; Stylistic function.

Topic 3

The theory of Context: Linguistic Context; Stylistic Context; its types and functions.

Topic 4

Imagery and Imagination: Image and Imagery in the Language and Mind development; Imagery in Stylistics; Informative and creative writing, Descriptive and figurative images, The structure of an image; Image and symbol, functions of imagery.

Topic 5

Synonymy in Stylistics: Stylistic and functional stylistic meaning, Language and speech synonyms, Stylistic Synonyms.

Topic 6

Stylistic Means: Expressive Means and Stylistic Devises.

Part 2 Stylistic Lexicology

Topic 7

Tropes: Transference of meaning, mechanism of tropes, Types of tropes, Figures of Quality. Metaphor, Personification, Allegory, Metonymy, Synecdoche, Antonomasia, Irony. Figures of Quantity. Hyperbole, Meiosis, Leitotes. Trite and fresh tropes, Epithet and its classification.

Topic 8

Types of Semantic Syntagmatic Relationships: Figures of Identity, Figures of Inequality, Figures of Contrast. Simile, Synonymous replacement, Zeugma, Pun, Tautology, Climax, Bathos, Oxymoron, Antithesis




Topic 9

Stylistic classification of English Vocabulary: Lexical and stylistic meaning, words with lexical-stylistic paradigm; words without lexical-stylistic paradigm; words of high stylistic tone (Elevated Lexis), words of low stylistic tone (Degraded Lexis). Poetic, Archaic and Historic words, Barbarisms, Terms, Foreign words, Slang words, Jargonisms, Professionalisms, Dialectal words, Vulgarisms, Literary and Colloquial Coinages, Nonce Words. Stylistic use of Phraseology.

Part 3 Stylistic Phonetics and Graphics

Topic 10

Phonetic stylistic means: Sounds and prosody, Versification (rhythm, rhyme, meter, structure of verse) Onomatopoeia, alliteration, assonance, paronomasia.

Topic 11

Graphic stylistic means: Grapheme, graphon, logical stress, graphic text organization.

Part 4 Stylistic Morphology

Topic 12

Morphological stylistic means: Morphological stylistic sources; Morphological Stylistic Device; Stylistic use of nouns, articles, pronouns, adjectives, verbs.

Part 5 Stylistic Syntax

Topic 13

Syntactic stylistic means: The Sentence Model; Syntactic Expressive means. Ellipsis, Nominative sentences, Aposiopesis, Repetition, Enumeration, Emphatic constructions, Inversion, Distancy, Asyndeton, Polisyndeton; Syntactic stylistic devices. Parallelism, Chiasmus, Anaphora, Epiphora, Anadiplosis, Framing, Rhetoric Question, Parcellation.

Part 6 Stylistics of Text

Topic 14

Foregrounding of stylistic devices: Foregrounding, its types and functions; Convergence, Coupling, Defeated Expectancy, Strong Position.




Topic 15

The level of text in a language: Text; Text Models; types of information in the text; text categories, integrity, cohesion and coherency; factors and forms of cohesion; directions and elements of coherency, discreteness, substantive discreteness; functional discreteness.

Part 7 Functional Stylistics

Topic 16

The theory of Functional Styles: Functional style, sublanguage, register; Classifications of Functional Styles.

Topic 17

Characteristic features of Functional Styles: Scientific Style, Official Style, Publicistic Style, Newspaper style, Belles-Lettres Style, Colloquial style.

Семинарские занятия

I. Tropes

1.  Questions for discussion

1)  Tropes: definition, mechanism, history, types, classifications.

2)  Metaphor: definition, mechanism, types, personification as a type of metaphor, allegory in Literature and Linguistics.

3)  Metonymy and synecdoche: definition, mechanism

4)  Antonomasia: definition, types.

5)  Irony: definition, mechanism, types.

6)  Hyperbole and Meiosis: definition, mechanism. Leitotes.

7)  The role of tropes in imagery.

2.  Practical Exercises

Exercise 1. Analyze the function of the metaphors in the words of Henry Percy from “King Henry IV” by W. Shakespeare. What image do they create?

But thought’s the slave of life, and life, time’s fool;

And time, that takes survey of all the world,

Must have a stop. O, I could prophesy,

But that the earthy and cold hand of death

Lies on my tongue: - no, Percy, thou art dust,




And food for - [Dies]

Exercise 2. Analyze the functions of the metonymies in Th Dylan’s poem “In My Craft or Sullen Art”.

In my craft or sullen art

Exercised in the still night

When only the moon rages (сияет)

And the lovers lie abed

With all their griefs in their arms,

I labour by singing light

Not for ambition or bread

Or the strut (важная походка) and trade of charms (обмен любезностями)

On the ivory stages (элита, белая кость)

But for the common wages

Of their most secret heart.

Exercise 3. Find the cases of hyperbole, analyze their functions. What can you say about the characters’ names?

Mrs Candour (прямота). My dear Lady Sneerwell, how have you been this century? – Mr Surface, what news do you hear? – though indeed it is no matter, for I think one hears nothing else but scandal.

Joseph Surface. Just so, indeed, ma’am.

Mrs Candour. Oh, Maria! Child, - what, is the whole affair off between you and Charles? His extravagance, I presume – the town talks of nothing else (School for Scandal. R. B. Sheridan)

Exercise 4. Find the cases of tropes, analyze their functions.

1)  I like hearing myself talk. It is one of my greatest pleasures. I often have long conversations all by myself, and I am so clever that sometimes I don’t understand a single word of what I am saying (O. Wilde. The Remarkable Rocket).

2)  Her roses faded out of her cheeks, and the pretty freshness left her figure after the birth of a couple of children, and she became a mere machine in her husband's house of no more use than the late Lady Crawley's grand piano (W. M. Thackeray. Vanity Fair.).




3)  Mrs Reed’s hands still lay on her work inactive: her eye of ice continued to dwell freezingly on me (Ch. Bronte. Jane Eyre)

4)  We differ at root, the headmistress and I, upon the question whether we are employed to educate the minds of girls or to intrude upon them. We have had this argument before, but Miss Mackay is not, I may say, an outstanding logician (M. Spark. The Prime of Miss Jean Brodie)

5)  He looked at the clock and began to get angry at the way time was slipping away. Time when he should be at work, work, work. Ploughing ahead with a thesis that would rock the scholarly world and start a revolution in literary criticism (D. Lodge. The British Museum is Falling down)

6)  The yellow fog that rubs its back upon the window-panes (стекло),

The yellow smoke that rubs its muzzle on the window-panes,

Licked its tongue into the corners of the evening,

Lingered upon the pools that stand in drains,

Let fall upon its back the soot that falls from chimneys,

Slipped by the terrace, made a sudden leap,

And seeing that it was a soft October night,

Curled once about the house, and fell asleep (T. S. Eliot. The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock)

7)  “You ought to be ashamed of yourself”, said Alice, “a great girl like you” (she might well say this), “to go on crying in this way! Stop this moment, I tell you!” But she went on all the same, shedding the gallons of tears (L. Carroll. Alice in Wonderland)

II.  Semantic syntagmatic stylistic devices




1.  Questions for discussion

1)  Epithet: definition, types. Epithet as a trope.

2)  Simile: definition, the type of semantic relations it demonstrates, types.

3)  Climax and bathos: definition, the type of semantic relations they demonstrate.

4)  Pun: definition, the type of semantic relations it demonstrates.

5)  Zeugma: definition, the type of semantic relations it demonstrates.

6)  Tautology: definition, the type of semantic relations it demonstrates, types.

7)  Oxymoron: definition, the type of semantic relations it demonstrates, models.

8)  Antithesis: definition, the type of semantic relations it demonstrates.

9)  The role of semantic syntagmatic SD in imagery.

2.  Practical Exercises

Exercise 1. Find the cases of simile and define their functions. What images are formed with the help of similes? Name the structural elements of these images. Name other SD used in the fragments:

1.It would degrade me to marry Heathcliff now, so he shall never know how I love him; and that, not because he’s handsome, Nelly, but because he’s more myself than I am. Whatever our souls are made of, his and mine are the same; and Linton’s is as different as a moonbeam from lightning, or frost from fire (E. Bronte. Wuthering Heights).

2.The movements of the other women were more or less similar to Tess’s, the whole bevy группа of them drawing together like dancers in a quadrille at the completion of a sheaf by each, everyone placing her sheaf on end against those of the rest, till a shock, or ‘stitch’ as it was here called, of ten or a dozen was formed (Th. Hardy. Tess of the d’Urbervilles).




3.‘Oh, dear!’ breathed the little old lady, and shuddered as if all the winds of heaven had entered the apartment (E. M. Forster. A Room with a View).

4.I did not know whether I would ever speak to her or not or, if I spoke to her, how I could tell her of my confused adoration. But my body was like a harp and her words and gestures were like fingers running upon the wires (J. Joyce. Araby).

Exercise 2. Find the epithets, name the types and define their functions:

1)  Out-of-the-way things happened (L. Carroll. Alice in Wonderland)

2)  Our family always hated cats: nasty, low, vulgar things! (L. Carroll. Alice in Wonderland)

3)  He has that unmistakable tall lanky долговязый "rangy" loose-jointed graceful closecropped formidably внушительно clean American look.

4)  She has taken to wearing heavy blue bulky объемистый shapeless quilted стеганый People's Volunteers trousers rather than the tight tremendous how-the-West-was-won trousers she formerly wore.

5)  Her painful shoes slipped off.

Exercise 3. Find the cases of zeugma and define their functions:

1.  Crabtree. Did you ever hear how Miss Piper came to lose her lover and her character last summer at Tunbridge? – Sir Benjamin, you remember it? (School for Scandal. R. B. Sheridan)

2.  He (Michael) was listening with his pointed ears to the plaint of a packer discovered with five copies of Copper Coin in his pocket, and the too obvious intention of converting them to his own use (J. Galsworthy. The White Monkey).




Exercise 4. Find the cases of antithesis and define their functions:

1.  I have observed that when I wore the semblance of Edward Hyde, none could come near me without a visible misgiving of the flesh. This, as I take it, was because all human beings, as we meet them are commingled out of good and evil: and Edward Hyde, alone, in the ranks of mankind, was pure evil (R. L. Stevenson. The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr Hyde)

2.  What a curious physical sensation, as if she were urged forward and at the same time must hold herself back, she made her first quick decisive stroke. The brush descended. It flickered brown over the white canvas; it left a running mark (V. Woolf. To the Lighthouse)

Exercise 5. Find the SD and define their functions:

1)  “You talk of them,” said Bossiney, “as if they were half England”.

“They are,” repeated young Jolyon, “half England, and the better half, too, the safe half, the three per cent half, the half that counts” (J. Galsworthy. The Forsyte Saga).

2)  Jack: I have lost both my parents.

Lady Bracknell: To lose one parent, Mr Worthing, may be regarded as a misfortune; to lose both looks like carelessness. Who was your father? (O. Wilde. The Importance of Being Earnest).

3)  There will be time, there will be time

To prepare the face to meet the faces that you meet;

There will be time to murder and create,

And time for all the works and days of hands

That lift and drop the question on your plate;

Time for you and time for me,




And time yet for a hundred indecisions,

And for a hundred visions and revisions,

Before the taking of a toast and tea (T. S. Eliot. The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock)

4)  “She’ll get me executed, as sure as ferrets хорек are ferrets” (L. Carroll. Alice in Wonderland)

5)  Still doth the soul, from its lone fastness high,

Upon our life a ruling effluence send;

And when it fails, fight as we will, we die,

And while it lasts, we cannot wholly end (M. Arnold. Palladium)

6)  While I am I, and you are you,

So long as the world contains us both,

Me the loving and you the loth,

While the one eludes, must the other pursue (R. Browning. Life in a Love)

7)  He caught a ride home to the crowded loneliness of the barracks.

8)  Sara was a menace and a tonic, my best enemy; Rozzie was a disease, my worst friend.

III.  Stylistic variation of words

1.  Questions for discussion

1)  Literary vocabulary. Bookish words. Poetisms.

2)  Archaic words. Historic words.

3)  Barbarisms. Foreignisms. Terms.

4)  Colloquial Vocabulary.

5)  Slang.

6)  Jargonisms. Professionalisms.

7)  Dialectal and Vulgar words.

8)  Literary and Colloquial Coinages. Nonce words.

9)  Use of Set Expressions, Proverbs, Sayings, Quotations.

2.  Practical Exercises

Exercise 1. Match the poetisms with their meanings:

main

sorrowful

woe

morning

meed

unlucky

morn

said

quoth

worked

hearken

reward

smite

merry

clad

hear, attend

wrought

clothed

doleful

sea

hopeless

at once

forlorn

often

jocund

sorrow

haply

hit, strike

oft

perhaps

anon

distressed




Exercise 2. Pick out the archaisms and analyse their functions:

1.  It only remains to notice, respecting the general arrangement, that one gallery in the very centre of the eastern side of the lists, and the consequently exactly opposite to the spot where the shock of the combat must take place, was raised higher than the others, more richly decorated, and graced by a sort of throne and canopy, on which the royal arms were emblazoned. Squires, pages and yeomen in rich liveries waited around this place of honour, which was designed for Prince John and his attendants (W. Scott. Ivanhoe).

2.  Rarely, rarely comest thou,

Spirit of delight!

Wherefore hast thou left me now

Many a day and night?

Many a weary night and day

‘Tis since thou art fled away (P. B. Shelley. Invocation of the Spirit of Delight)

Exercise 3. Pick out the stylistically coloured words and analyse their functions:

They were got about two miles beyond Barnet, and it was now the dusk of the evening, when a genteel-looking man, but upon a very shabby horse, rode up to Jones, and asked him whether he was going to London; to which Jones answered to the affirmative. The gentleman replied, “I should obliged to you, sir, if you will accept of my company; for it is very late, and I am a stranger to the road.” Jones readily complied with the request; and on they travelled together, holding that sort of discourse which is usual on such occasions (The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling. H. Fielding)

Exercise 4. Characterise the speech of Rob Roy:




“Muckle[1],” said the stranger, whose language became more broadly national as he assumed a tone of colloquial freedom – “Muckle wad[2] the provost and bailies o’ Glasgow gie[3] to hae him sitting with iron garters to his hose within their tolbooth[4], that now stands wi’ his legs as free as the red deer’s on the outside on’t. And little wad it awail them; for an if they had me there wi’ a stane’s[5] weight o’ iron at every ancle, I would show them a toom[6] room and a lost lodger before tomorrow. But come on, what stint[7] ye for? (Rob Roy. W.Scott).

Exercise 5. Characterise the speech of the Dodo. What effect does the register produce?

‘In this case’ said the Dodo solemnly, rising to its feet, ‘I move that the meeting adjourn, for the immediate adoption of more energetic remedies”

‘Speak English! I don’t know the meaning of half those long words, and what’s more, I don’t believe you do either (L. Carroll. Alice in Wonderland)

Exercise 6. Characterise the usage of nonce-words, their meanings and functions:

Scattered about London there were just three other buildings of similar appearance and size. So completely did they dwarf the surrounding architecture that from the roof of Victory Mansions you could see all four of them simultaneously. They were the homes of the four Ministries between which the entire apparatus of government was divided: the Ministry of Truth, which concerned itself with news, entertainment, education, and fine arts; the Ministry of Peace, which concerned itself with war; the Ministry of Love, which maintained law and order; and the Ministry of Plenty, which was responsible for economic affairs. Their names, in Newspeak: Minitrue, Minipax, Miniluv, and Miniplenty (G. Orwell. 1984).




IV.  Stylistic Phonetics and Graphics

1.  Questions for discussion

1)  Alliteration, Assonance, Paronomasia: definitions and functions.

2)  Rhythm in poetry and prose, its characteristics and functions.

3)  Types of metre, characteristics and function.

4)  Rhyme

5)  The structure of verse, characteristics and functions:

A)  stanza (couplet, quatrain, octave)

B)  sonnet

6)  Graphic stylistic means, grapheme and graphon.

2.  Practical Exercises

Exercise 1. Analyze the rhyme, foot and meter in the verses:

1.  I bring fresh showers for the thirsting flowers,

From the seas and the streams;

I bear light shade for the leaves when laid

In their noon-day dreams.

From my wings are shaken the dews that waken

The sweet buds every one,

When rocked to rest on their mother’s breast,

As she dances about the sun (P. B. Shelley. The Cloud)

2.  For the Angel of Death spread his wings on the blast

And breathed in the face of the foe as he passed;

And the eyes of the sleepers waxed deadly and chill,

And their hearts but once heaved and for ever grew still (G. ron. The Destruction of Sennacherib).

3.  Merrily, merrily, shall I live now

Under the blossom that hangs on the bough (W. Shakespeare. The Tempest).

4.  I wondered lonely as a cloud

That floats on high o’er vales and hills

When all at once I saw a crowd –

A host of golden daffodils (W. Wordsworth. The Daffodils).

Exercise 2. Pick out phonetic SD, analyze their functions:




1)  Break, break, break,

On thy cold grey stones, O Sea!

And I would that my tongue could utter

The thoughts that arise in me.

O well for the fisherman’s boy,

That she shouts with his sister at play!

O well for the sailor lad,

That he sings in his boat on the bay! (A. Tennyson. Break, Break, Break)

2)  And on the ground the seeds drop and dry with the black shreds hanging from them. The purple prunes soften and sweeten. God, we can’t pick them and dry and sulphur them. We can’t pay wages, no matter what wages (J. Steinbeck. The Grapes of Wrath)

3)  When all the others were away at Mass

I was all hers as we peeled potatoes.

They broke the silence, let fall one by one

Like solder weeping off the soldering iron;

Cold comforts set between us, things to share

Gleaming in a bucket of clean water.

And again let fall. Little pleasant splashes

From each other’s work would bring us to our senses.

So while the parish priest at her bedside

Went hammer and tongs at the prayers for the dying

And some were responding and some crying

I remember her head bent towards my head,

Her breath in mine, our fluent dipping knives –

Never closer the whole rest of our lives (S. Heaney. When All the Others).

Exercise 3. Find the cases of graphic stylistic means, analyze their functions:

1.  (Huck tries to explain to Jim that French people speak a different language from theirs)

I told about Lois Sixteenth that got his head cut off in France long time ago; and about his little boy the dolphin, that would a been a king, but they took and shut him up in jail, and some say he died there.




“Po’ little chap”

“But some says he got out and got away, and come to America.”

“Dat’s good! But he’ll be pooty lonesome – dey ain’ no kings here, is dey, Huck?”

“No.”

“Den he cain’t git the situation. What he gwyne to do?” (M. Twain. Huckleberry Finn)

2.  Dean suddenly became tender. “Now dammit, look here, all of you, we all must admit that everything is fine and there’s no need in the world to worry, and in fact we should realize what it would mean to us to UNDERSTAND that we’re not REALLY worried about ANYTHING. Am I right?” We all agreed (J. Kerouac. On the road)

V.  Stylistic Syntax

1.  Questions for discussion

1)  Ellipsis, Nominative sentence, Aposiopesis: definitions and functions.

2)  Repetition and Enumeration: definitions and functions.

3)  Asyndeton and Polysyndeton: definitions and functions.

4)  Inversion and Detachment: definitions and functions.

5)  Parallelism and Chiasmus: definitions and functions.

6)  Anaphora and Epiphora; definitions and functions.

7)  Anadiplosis and Framing: definitions and functions.

8)  Rhetoric question: definition, function.

2.  Practical Exercise

Find out syntactical stylistic means and comment on their functions:

1)  As the only endowments with which Nature had gifted Lady Crawley were those of pink cheeks and a white skin, and as she had no sort of character, nor talents, nor opinions, nor occupations, nor amusements, nor that vigour of soul and ferocity of temper which often falls to the lot of entirely foolish women, her hold upon Sir Pitt's affections was not very great (Vanity Fair. W. M. Thackeray).




2)  There is a crime here that goes beyond denunciation. There is a sorrow here that weeping cannot symbolize. There is a failure here that topples all our success. The fertile earth, the straight tree rows, the sturdy trunks, and the ripe fruit. And children dying of pellagra must die because a profit cannot be taken from an orange (J. Steinbeck. The Grapes of Wrath).

3)  To me education is a leading out of what is already there in the pupil’s soul. To Miss Mackay it is a putting in of something that is not there, and that is not what I call education, I call in intrusion (M. Spark. The prime of Miss Jean Brodie).

4)  Vanity Fair - Vanity Fair! Here was a man, who could not spell, and did not care to read - who had the habits and the cunning of a boor; whose aim in life was pettifogging; who never had a taste, or emotion, or enjoyment, but what was sordid and foul; and yet he had rank, and honours, and power, somehow: and was a dignitary of the land, and a pillar of the state (Vanity Fair. W. M. Thackeray).

5)  “And how do you tell them, may I ask?” said Bosinney.

“By their sense of property. A Forsyte takes a practical – one might say a commonsense – view of things, and a practical view of things is based fundamentally on a sense of property. A Forsyte, you will notice, never gives himself away.” (J. Galsworthy. The Forsyte Saga).

6)  The conductor pulled his bell, and the tram moved slowly back the way it had come; out of the gas-glittering homage to a Queen; out of the purple and crimson and gold; out of the pomp on the walls and the bloodshed in the street; out of sight of the gleaming crowns and beaming blessings, back to the dimness of Dorset Street and home (S. O’Casey. I Knock at the Door)

7)  All the public inscriptions in the town were painted alike, in severe characters of black and white. The jail might have been the infirmary, the infirmary might have been the jail, the town-hall might have been either, or both, or anything else, for anything that appeared to the contrary in the graces of their constructions (Ch. Dickens. Hard Times)

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