Курс практической грамматики английского языка для государственных служащих (стр. 1 )

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Кафедра иностранных языков и речевых коммуникаций

Курс практической грамматики английского языка для государственных служащих

Учебное пособие

Ростов-на-Дону, 2007


Кафедра иностранных языков и речевых коммуникаций


, канд. филологических наук, , канд. филологических наук


Курс практической грамматики для государственных служащих: Учебное пособие. Ростов н/Д: Изд-во СКАГС, 20с.

Пособие представляет собой учебный комплекс, состоящий из двух разделов: грамматический справочник английского языка и упражнения по грамматике. Упражнения составлены на материале аутентичных текстов и включают лексику, относящуюся к актуальным для будущего государственного служащего темам: экономика, политология, государственная служба в разных странах.

Цель данного пособия – помочь учащимся выработать навыки грамматически правильной английской речи на базе профессионально-направленной лексики.

Печатается по решению кафедры.

Протокол №11 от 01.01.01 г.


Part I. Exercises. 4

1. The Articles. 4

2. The Nouns. 7

3. The Pronouns 7

4. Adjectives and Adverbs 8

5. Tenses. 10

5.1. Present Indefinite Tense. 10

5.2. Present Continuous Tense. 12

5.3. Future Indefinite Tense. 14

5.4. Past Indefinite Tense. 15

5.5. Past Continuous Tense. 17

5.6. Future Continuous Tense. 18

5.7. Present Perfect Tense. 18

5.8. Past Perfect Tense. 19

5.9. Future Perfect Tense. 20

5.10. Present Perfect Continuous Tense. 20

5.11. Review of the Tenses. 21

6. Voice. 25

7. Sequence of Tenses. 27

9. Reported speech. 28

9. Modal Verbs. 29

10. Non-finite Forms of the Verb. 30

10.1. The Infinitive. 30

10.2 The Gerund. 32

10.3 The Participle. 33

11. Mood. 34


Part III. Glossary. 75

Использованная литература. 83

Part I. Exercises.

1.  The Articles

Exercise 1. Choose the correct article:

1. Several credit customers have requested (a, an) extension of time. 2.You will be forced to cope with (a, an) unusual problem. 3. Parkinson will discuss his grievance with (a, an) union official. 4. Many salespeople work on (a, an) commission basis. 5. He wrote to (a, an) number of his credit customers about the new extention of services. 6. As (a, an) tribute to our sales team, the annual ceremony will be held next month. 7. In writing up the sale, he made (a, an) inexcusable irror. 8. At (a, an) predetermined hour the delegates took their seats. 9. Because (a, an) suitable convention site is difficult to find, the committee will make the final dicision. 10. The charges may be high for (a, an) original installation.

Exercise 2. Insert proper article where necessary:

1. To _ economist, _economic society presents itself as _ mechanism for _ survival. 2._ institution of _ private property is _ major feature of _ capitalism. 3. _ freedom of _ consumer choice is usually held to be _ most important of _ economic “freedoms”. 4. In _ capitalist system _ incomes take _ form of _ wages, _ interest, _ rent, and _ profits. 5. _ working population may be defined as _ number of _ people who are eligible for _ work and offer themselves for _ employment. 6. In _ many countries _ minimum age at which _ person may engage in _ full-time employment is legally controlled. 7. _ most of _ products of _ advanced technology have _ world markets, for _ example, _ computers, _ aeroplanes, _ ships, and _ motor car. 8. Nowadays practically all _ exchanges represent _ exchange of _ goods and _ services for _ money, and _ prices in _ terms of _ money are _ market value of _ things they buy. 9. _ bank-notes and _ coins are not _ most important form of _ money in _ developed economies. 10. In _ UK about 90 %, by _ value, of all transactions are settled by _ means of _ cheque.

Exercice 3. Think about the usage of definite and indefinite articles and insert them into the gaps where necessary:

1. _ Scottish moral philosopher Adam Smith published _ first edition of his monumental work in 17_ Mr. Morales, my employer, plans to remain in _ Omaha for more than _ week. 3. _ brilliant young attorney will represent _ Government. 4. Our purchasing agent was born in _ Midwest. 5. He worked as _ engineer for _ city of _ Cleveland. 6. In _ October of _ last year _ Mr. Solano shared his good fortune with _ people of _ Illinois by _ donating $300,000 to _ Lincoln Library. 7. During _ war years my employer was either _ captain or _ colonel. 8. _ Jones`s will continue to trade with _old organization. 9. _ stockholders` committee is making _ dedicated effort to protect all _ investors` interests. 10. _ manager`s telephone number was temporarily _ same as _ vise president`s.

Exercise 4. Put the proper article where necessary:

1. _secretary typed two letters by _ mistake. 2. _ tree quarters of _ employees of our company don`t come in _ time at _ work. 3. Our firm offers you to take this product on _ credit. 4. To save _ time we read _ little abstract of _ article. 5. As _ resalt, _ substantial orders have been placed in _ UK. 6. _ conference was held by _ government of _ USA. 7. Perhaps _ best measure of _ quality is_ customer satisfaction with _ firm`s overall service or product. 8. We helped finance _ Yanceys` purchase of _ home. 9. _ advertisement will cover _ half page. 10. We live in _ world of _ specialists. 11. He studies _ Japan history at _ college. 12. _ Americans like _ fat books but _ thin women. 13. Before _ people invented _ wheel, they could not transport heavy loads easily. 14. This is _ supermarket I highly recommend you. 15. Don`t remain silent when you meet _ people for _ first time because if you do, _ American might think you are _ snob.

Exercise 5. Say what article is used with the following proper names if any:

Great Britain

Russian Federative Republic


B. Sadovaya Street

Moscow University



United States of America

International Court of Justice

Great Lakes



Harvard law library



Sahara Desert


North Pole

Niagara Falls

High Street

Oxford University

European Economic Council

Royal Academy of Science

Suez Canal

World Federation of Trade Unions

Gulf of Mexico

World War II

Cape of Good Hope

United Nation Organization

Member of House of Representatives

Exercise 6. Insert the proper articles:

1. Different countries have very different__trade strategies. 2. If__government tries to control__inflation by controlling _wages,__real income of__population declines. 3. If__ government decides to do nothing,__country runs__risk of having__economy deterioration to__point that real incomes fall anyway. 4. Even when__company successfully indentifies _ differences in__foreign country where it intends to do _ business, must it alter its customary practices to be successful there? 5.__theory is helpful for differentiating__reward pref­erences __employees have in__different countries. 6.__lin­guists have determined that even very primitive societies have __complex languages that reflect__environment in which _people live. 7. Why do__trade and __ investment take place? 8.__theory of__international trade is developed, and__ad­vantages of specialization resulting from__trade are discussed. 9. They first identified__products that would have__high need for__semiskilled and__skilled labour. 10. Normally,__further the distance,__higher are__transport costs, and__average distances for__trade__greater for__large countries than for__small countries. 11. If we look at__ labour, not as __homogenious commodity, but rather by categories of__la­bour, we find that__industrial countries actually have __ more abundant supply of__highly educated labour (to which__high capital expenditure has been made) than of__other types. 18. When__labour is abundant in relation to__capital,__cheap labour rates and__export competitiveness in__products re­quiring large amounts of__labour relative to__capital would be expected. 19. Most industrial countries have not agreed on _ sequence of__ techniques for assessing__values. 20. _ export quotas may be established to assume that__domestic consumers will have__sufficient supply at__low price. 21.__specific type of__ quotas that prohibits all__trade is known as__embargo. 22.__transportation costs must be examined in relation to__type of technology used to produce__goods. 23. In such__situation especially if product is highly stan­dardized or undifferentiated from__competitors, __ cost per__unit as apt to drop significantly as__output increases. 24. _ scope of economics is indicated by__facts with which it deals. 25. One of _ latest trends in business is__merging and _acquisition.

Exercise 7. Insert proper articles paying special attention to the use of articles with proper nouns:

1. According to _ Labour Forse Surrey, carried out by _ Office for National Statistics, _ some 29. 6 million people aged 16 and over were economically active on _ seasonally adjusted basis in _ UK in _ April-June 20In _ Northern Ireland _ Department for Higher and Further Education Training and Employment has responsibility for ensuring that _ skills and _ labour needs of _ local economy are met. 3. _ population of _ UK in mid-1999 was estimated to the less than 59. 5 million, _ second largest in _ European Union. 4. _ Falkland Islands are _ subject of a territorial claim by _ Argentina. 5. _ 1987 poll showed that only 10 % of _ Jamaicans thought that their _ Prime Minister _ Edward Seage was doing _ good job. 6. _ United States had begun to open _ trade with China and was anxious to demonstrate to _ Soviet Union that _ Chinese trade would not be at _ expense of _ Soviet trade. 6. Although _ Shri Lanka did not become independent until 1948 it has _ long history of _ international trade. 7. _ Denmark, for example, exports _ silver tableware, not because there are rich _ Danish silver mines but because _ Danish companies have developed _ distinctive products. 8. Most of _ production and consumers in _ United States are more than 100 miles from _ Canadian or Mexican _ borders. 9. In _ Netherlands, however, almost _ entire production and _ market are within 100 miles of its _ border. 10. On _ Wall Street all _ major financial houses attempt to predict _ actions of _ Fed, and those predictions influence trading in financial assets. 11. In 1817 _ David Ricardo exam­ined this question and expanded on _ Adam Smith's treatise on _ absolute advantage.

Exercise 8. Insert suitable articles where necessary:

_ economics promotes _ better understanding of _ nature and organization of _ societies, _ arguments underlying many of _ great public issues of _ day, and _ operation and behaviour of _ business firms and other decision-making units. _ econom­ics relates to many problems in _ real world. Every human so­ciety — whether it is _ advanced industrial nation, _ centrally planned economy, or — isolated tribal society — must confront and resolve three fundamental and interdependent economic problems. They are: What _ commodities are to be produced? How will _ goods be produced? For whom will _ goods be pro­duced? These three basic problems are common to all econo­mies. _ three economic tasks of every society are really about _ choices among economy's resources. _ resource is _ material or _ service that is used to make goods or services. Not all resources are scarce. _ free resources, such as air, are so abundant that they can be obtained without _ charge. Scarce resources are called _ economic resources.

2. The Nouns

Exercise 9. Give the plural of the following nouns:

city; cargo; man; woman; child; branch; size; text; leaf; half; portfolio; family-name; commander-in-chief; passer-by; look­er-on.

Exercise 10. Give the plural of the following words of Latin and Greek origin:

analysis; axis; basis; nucleus; phenomenon; datum; index; thesis; stimulus; formula; index; medium; curriculum; criteri­on, referendum.

Exercise 11. Replace the of-phrase by the possessive case:

the son of Mary; the assistant of the chief executive; the duties of a manager; the recent statement of President; the population of Britain; for the sake of economy; the latest the­ory of the professor; the works of Smith; the meetings of professors; a distance of two kilometers; the newspaper of today; for the sake of convenience.

Exercise 12. Write the correct form of the noun in parentheses. The possessive case may or may not bе required:

Example: (clerk) The new attitude could certainly be improved.– The new clerk`s attitude could certainly be improved.

1. (Johnson) No other employee has equaled Larry_______outstanding performance.

2. (Lynch) He volunteered to drive the______to their factory in Akron.

3. (year) The current ______ sales will be posted on Thursday.

4. (student) The investigating officer went to several of the _____ homes.

5. (Romo) The blue Chevrolet is mine; the yellow Datsun is Gary____.

6. (plumber) We were pleased to learn that a few of the____ wives will attend our dinner meeting.

7. (hour) With this new machine she can do three ____ work in a few minutes.

8. (lady) I want to know the exact day that ___ shoes will go on sale.

9. (Clark) Our new warehouse is big, but the ___ new warehouse is even bigger.

10. (Corliss) ____ and Harper's new drug store is going to do extremely well..

3. The Pronouns

Exercise 13. State the group to which of these pronouns belongs. Give all the other pronouns of the same group:

it, this, I, either, mine, much, other, everything, one, the same, another, both, each, none, one another, which, anyone, some, who, myself.

Exersice 14. Write the correct form of the pronoun and indicate its case:

Example: My colleagues were obviously pleased to meet both you and (he, him).

- (him), objective case.

1. The work will not take long if you and (he, him) cooperate.

2. (She, Her) and the bookkeeper will represent us at the convention.

3. Free tickets were given to everyone in the room except (I, me, myself).

4. The supervisor congratulated Hunt and (I, me) on our recent success.

5. The small Dearborn plant is now (ours, our's).

6. What would you do with this old building if you were (they, them)?

7. The meeting will begin as soon as the ladies have taken (there, their) seats.

8. If you are interested in this proposal, telephone the attorneys or (we, us).

9. Wallace left the brochures with our representatives, Simmons and (she, her).

10. The two people who should be considered for promotion are Bancroft and ( I, me).

Exersice 15. Select the correct response :

1. He agrees that (anyone, any one) of the heaters will serve our purpose.

2. Each of the women must provide (her, their) own tools.

3. Neither of the men would volunteer (his, their) services.

4. Someone on our eight-man committee left (his, their) pen on the table.

5. If some of our opponents are present, (he, they) will object.

6. Did anyone on the men's team express (his, their) views on the subject?

7. (Who, Whom) did we elect as treasurer of the group?

8. The speaker referred to Theodore Danby, (who, whom) you just met.

9. Are you the person with (who, whom) Mr. Rinaldi just spoke?

10. Give the extra ticket to (whoever, whomever) you want.

Exercise 16. Translate into English:

1. Кто здесь? Это ты? – Да, это я. 2. Это я оставил тебе сообщение. 3. Говорят, он опубликовал мало работ, но все его работы имели большой успех. 4. Кто из нас выступит, ты или я? 5. Вы не знаете и половины того, что знаю я. 6. Кому из этих партнеров ты доверяешь больше? – К сожалению, ни одному из них. 7. Новости, которые они мне сообщили, очень интересны. 8. Я думаю, это никого не касается, кроме меня. 9. Человек, который только что звонил, просил вам кое-что передать. 10. Все эти проблемы много раз поднимались, но ни одна из них еще не решена. 11. Раньше я никогда не сталкивался с такой трудной работой, как эта. 12. Кто-нибудь из вас знает об этом? 13. Если у вас есть какие-нибудь возражения, скажите нам.

4. Adjectives and Adverbs

Exercise 17. Give the comparative and superlative degree of the follow­ing adjectives:

complete; free; accurate; wide; narrow; clever; intelligent; new; popular; economical; reasonable; little; bad; honorable; good; many; far, old; low, deep.

Exercise 18. Translate into English:

1. Это самое короткое резюме, которое можно написать по этому вопросу. 2. Доклад должен быть как можно ко­роче и содержать лишь наиболее важные мысли автора. 3. Эта проблема серьезнее и глубже, чем вам кажется. 4. Луч­шие статьи будут опубликованы в сборнике молодых уче­ных. 5. Я слышал оба доклада. Первый был значительно интереснее второго. 6. Этот текст еще более трудный, чем тот, который мы читали вчера. 7. Вот самый легкий способ решения. 8. Чем интереснее книга, тем быстрее она чита­ется. 9. Этот автомобиль самой последней конструкции. 10. Чем внимательнее вы будете, тем меньше ошибок сделае­те. 11. Они потребовали более высокой зарплаты. 12. Он сказал, чтобы мы ждали дальнейших инструкций.

Exercise 19. Translate the sentences into Russian and point out the adjectives in comperative and superlative degrees:

1.Easier said than done. 2. Interest rates on personal loans are higher than on business loans. 3. Of all the novelty dealers John Kindel had the highest sales. 4. Most companies are seeking to employ their capital to its fullest extent in business. 5. The higher a person`s income, the higher the tax rate. 6. He is the wealthiest manufacturer in the city. 7. The greater the demand, the higher the price. 8. Bosses today are younger and closer in age to the workers they supervise. 9. Japan now has the third largest military budget in the world. 10. The more competition, the lower the prices. 11. This piece of property is the less expensive of the two parcels. 12. Two heads are better than one. 13. The longer the period for which the money is borrowed, the greater the risk of default by the borrower. 14. The more independent firms there are in an industry, the greater the competition. 15. John F. Kennedy was the youngest president of the United States. 16. The gap between the middle class and the disadvantaged people with little or no education is getting wider and wider.

Exercise 20. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Процентные ставки вашего банка выше наших. 2. Все организационные вопросы лучше решить заранее. 3. Эта область промышленности более развита и конкурентоспособна. 4. Было бы лучше, если бы вы приняли нашу заявку в срок. 5. Первый контракт компания заключила быстрее, чем второй. 6. Это предприятие производит самый широкий ассортимент материалов и товаров. 7. Нью - Йорк – один из самых дорогих городов США. 8. Чем больше предприятие производит, тем оно богаче. 9. Чем выше процент, тем больше срок выплаты кредита. 10. Экономическая ситуация в этом году стала стабильнее, чем раньше. 11. Мы просим давать более полную информацию о проделанной работе в отчетах. 12. Ваше оборудование лучше, чем у ваших конкурентов, но мы не сможем заключить договор из-за более высокой цены. 13. Наш директор – старейший и наиболее уважаемый сотрудник в компании. 14. Ждите дальнейших распоряжений. 15. Эта задача не такая сложная, как вы думаете. 16.Я прочел оба отчета. Первый – более полный, чем второй. 17. Нам нужен кабинет побольше, так как наш отдел расширяется. 18. Ваши запчасти в два раза дороже наших. 19. С каждым днем ситуация становилась все хуже. 20. У нашей фирмы больше конкурентов, чем у вашей.

Exercise 21. Use the proper form of comparative degree of adjectives and adverbs given in breckets. Translate the sentences:

1. Today the political situation of the country is (strong) than ever before. 2. Our department did the work the (little) possible time. 3. You should give us the (full) discription of the equipment than before. 4. This country now has the second (large) economic budget all over the world. 5. Their factory with (little) automation and (little) financing is turning out (good) quality. 6. The workers themselves suffered (many – больше всего). 7. New conditions give our partners the (free) access to the firm`s property. 8. A lot of enterprises are seeking to employ their capital to its (full) extent in business. 9. Moskow is one of (costly) cities in Russia. 10. Our Stuff Department finds out the (good) managers for our company. 11. The prices at the Economy Center are (many) reasonable than those at comparable discount store. 12. According to the graduate catalog, student housing is (cheap) than that off campus.

Exercise 22. Choose one of the forms given in brackets:

1. (Fewer, Less) people work for the Government than for private industry.

2. The staff will be (happy, happier) with the new facilities than with the old one.

3. Watson insisted that he could type a (most perfect, perfect) copy every time.

4. You could avoid such blunders by being (carefuler, more careful).

5. Karen Pitts is the (best, better) projectionist in her class.

6. The weather is (hotter, hottest) in Palm Spring than in San Francisco.

7. You should have ordered (less, fewer) plastic containers.

8. Jennifer was rated the (faster, fastest) stenographer in the entire firm.

9. It is the (shorter, shortest) way to get there.

10. He asked (higher, more high) wage.

5. Tenses

5.1. Present Indefinite Tense

Exercise 23. Put the verbs in brackets into the Present Simple and translate them into Russian:

1. The role of the Senior Investment Advisor (to be) to lead a team of local investment officers in developing and delivering a program of advisory assistance. 2. Japanese companies (to export) televisions and hi-fi systems all over the world. 3. Only three quarters of the population of the country (to work), another part (to be) unemployed. 4. Congressman William Atherton (to represent) the 20th District. 5. A refinary (to turn) oil into petrol. 6. A department store (to be) a store which (to sell) many different kinds of goods, each in a separate department. 7. Sales promotion manager and his staff (to promote) the sale merchandise through advertising and other techniques. 8. The Director`s responsibilities (to include) the early identification of strategic issues, international coordination of policy development, etc.. 9. Millions of dollars (to roll out) of the stock market and into real estate. 10. While export (to surge), domestic demand (to lag behind). 11. The way people (to dress) at work usually (to indicate) how competent they (to be) at their work. 12. People (to work) best in the clothers they (to feel) most comfortable in. 13. The reading of economic literature (to require) knowladge of economic terms. 14. The Internal Revenew Service (to make) all Americans file their tax forms by April 15 annually. 15. Our company (to specialise) in providing package tours for British and American tourish all over the world. 16. She (not to earn) much, but she still (to manage) to save a little money each month.

Exercise 24. Put the following sentences of Present Simple into negative and and interrogative forms:

1. Our firm sells a lot of different goods to foreign partners.

2. He wants to discuss the terms of payment with us.

3. I am ready to give you the last chance.

4. Our office is on the 15th floor of the building.

5. Her husband is a director of a large enterprise.

6. We provide a wide range of services for the customers.

7. The secretary brings the mail in the morning.

8. Their plants produce electronic equipment.

9. His company does business with Great Britain, Germany and Switzerland.

10. These are my telephone numbers.

Exercise 25. Make up all possible questions to each sentence in Present Simple:

1. The company is a successful independent operator with turnover now exceeding $30ml.

2. The advertisement promises a special benefit to the successful applicant.

3. New consumer protection legislation comes into force next April.

4. She is a highly efficient manager.

5. Women in this factory work under the same conditions as men.

6. Annually the government spends $1 million on an advertising compaign to encourage energy conservation.

7. Usually we ship the goods at the end of the month.

8. Profit plays an important part in determining the allocation of resources.

9. They often hold their meetings in Rome.

10. They appraise their employees once a year.

Exercise 26. Put the verbs into the Present Simple Tense and translate them into Russian:

1. Investment advisers (to admit) that it (to be) awfully hard to tell investors to put up and wait ten years. 2. Interest-free credit and grant financing (to come) from the world`s largest source of concessional assistance. 3. Individual tutorials (to give) opportunity to participants to set their own agenda in one-to-one discussion with carefully matched tutors from Templeton`s faculty. 4. The personnel staff (to hire) employees and (to handle) other employment problems. 5. We (to offer) a 10% discount to regular customers. 6. Great Britain (to have) an open economy, in which foreign trade (to play) a vital part. 7. Several of our employees (to live) on 120th Street. 8. Individual employees (to determine) what content (to belong) on the site and (to incorporate) it themselves, creating a free-flowing enviroment. 9. The welfare reform bill (not to cut) welfare spending sharply. 10. China (to manufacture) two thirds of the world`s copiers, microwave ovens, DVD players, shoes and all the world`s toys. Nations (to use) many methods to restrict trade. 11. Government (to take part) in many important economic activities. 12. Some people in capitalist countries (to receive) financial aid from the government – administrated national insurance or social security programmes. 13. All the goods and services provided by government (to make up) the public sector of the economy.

Exercise 27. Translate the sentences into English using Present Simple:

1. Каждый частный предприниматель стремится к получению максимальной прибыли. 2. Менеджер компании отвечает за анализ экономической обстановки. 3. Совет директоров – это группа лиц, которая играет основную роль в деятельности организации. 4. Упаковка обеспечивает полную сохранность товара и защищает его от повреждения во время транспортировки. 5. Обычно цена влияет на потребительский спрос. 6. Розничные торговцы располагают более полной информацией о потребностях и вкусах покупателей, чем оптовики. 7. Цены, по которым они продают свой товар, вполне конкурентоспособные. 8. Мы регулярно заключаем договоры с этой фирмой и полностью ей доверяем. 9. У меня есть скидка на многие товары в этом магазине. 10. Наша фирма производит платеж против отгрузочных документов по аккредитиву.

Exercise 28. Open the brackets, put the verbs in the correct form of the Present Simple Tense.

I. The quality of the strategic control process (to depend) upon quality of the thinking on which the strategic objectives are based. 2. The strategic control, process for each business in the corporate portfolio (to begin) with a formal strategy review. 3. Some companies (to carry out) these reviews annually; oth­ers (to undertake) the reviews less regularly. 4. The strategic planning also typically (to provide) a discussion of the general background to the favoured strategy. 5. The great majority of companies (not to define) explicit strategic objectives or milestones that are regularly monitored as part of the ongoing management control process. 6. Each business (to prepare) its budget in the early autumn. 7. Monitoring of results at the corporate level (to concentrate) on final performance against budget. 8. After a financial crisis companies often (to introduce) stricter financial controls. 9. There (to be) multiple sources of competitive ad­vantage in the business, which (to be) difficult and complex to identify and measure. 10. Face-to-face meetings and discussions (to help) to present formal control reports from becoming sim­ply a bureaucratic routine.

5.2. Present Continuous Tense

Exercise 29. Open the brackets, put the verbs into Present Continuous and translate the sentences into Russian:

1. The International Labour Office (to seek) to recruit high calibre Chief Technical Advisers to lead a number of technical cooperation projects. 2. Today more and more US manufacturers (to make) their products in China because of low labour costs, but there are also more American businesses which (to look) to enter the Chinese market and sell there. 3. Consumers (to demand) more environmentally friendly product. 4. I (to enjoy) my new work. 5. We (to sell) this business to a small syndicate. 6. They (to consider) several changes in personnel. 7. Economic conditions (to change) all the time. 8. At present we (to recruit) a new sales director. 9. The director of our company (to look through) the morning mail now. 10. Sales (not to increase) at the moment. 11. Neither of my sons (to plan) to join this firm. 12. I think my father probably (to have a meeting) in his office. 13. The pollution where I live (to get worse) all the time. 14. Local phone companies (to dial up) new opportunities in the long-distance market.

Exercise 30. Make up the sentences in Present Continuous using the following words:

1. exchange, not, chief, a, of, first, stock, she, executive, is, the, woman.

2. friends, or, got, assistants, most, jobs, shop, workers, of, office, my, as.

3. is, labour, services, directed, the, to, of, production, and, goods.

4. make, incomes, attractive, higher, more, leisure.

5. one, money, is, man`s, inventions, greatest, of.

6. are, ways, several, there, of, inflation, defining.

7. the, gives, market, a, computers, all, list, the, on, magazine, of, the.

8. better, but, German, are, they, expensive, cars, are, more.

9. very, to, nowadays, is, job, difficult, get, it, a.

10. Paris, a, I, small, am, in, renting, apartment.

Exercise 31. Translate the sentences into English:

1. Сейчас мы проводим аудиторскую проверку этих предприятий. 2. Начальство предлагает ему занять более высокий пост. А он раздумывает. 3. На данный момент всемирным лидером в области технологии являются Соединенные Штаты. 4. Сейчас они не справляются со своими обязанностями. 5. Процентные ставки продолжают расти. 6. Их компания ищет секретарей, которые говорят на двух языках. 7. Он играет активную роль в глобальной экономической политике. 8. Япония сегодня демонстрирует самый высокий в мире рост производительности труда. 9. На этой неделе совет директоров проведет ежегодное собрание. 10. Мы наблюдаем за изменениями в поведении потребителей. 11. В настоящее время наша компания переживает тяжелые времена. 12. Потребление табачных изделий в мире увеличивается от полутора до двух процентов.

Exercise 32. Put the verbs in the brackets in Present Simple or Present Continuous and translate them into Russian:

1. The Center Director (to maintain) the day-to-day operations of the Center, (to supervise) the professional and administrative staff and (to be responsible for) implementing the polices and procedures as established by Executive Council. 2. Many developing countries (to have) difficulties to meet the obligations they agreed upon. 3. The bigest mass migration in the history of the world (to be) under way in China, and it (to creat) what some (to call) the second industrial revolution. 4. Businessmen (to invest) vast amounts in these industries. 5. The textile industry (to say) it (to lose) business because rich clients (to leave) the country. 6. Even a part-time job (to give) a person a certain amount of independence. 7. Inventories jumped 2.2%, suggesting output (to fall) further in coming months until businesses (to clear out) the overhang of merchandise and supplies. 8. For now pirates (to act) with relative impunity. 9. These bikes only (not to show up) in licensed Jamaha distributorship in China. 10. Yet, the bogus (поддельный) goods also (to start) to seep into the US, where customs officers (to examine) perhaps 2% of everything that (to enter) the country. panies also (to try) to boost the government`s ability to detect fakes. 12. Now China (to encourage) its own enterprises to move to the US market. 13. Developing countries (to receive) grants, interest-free loans, and technical assistence from the World Bank. 14. China (to be) now the world`s largest producer of coal, steel and cement, the second largest consumer of energy and the third largestimporter of oil, which (to be) why gas prices (to soar).

Exercise 33. Use the verb in the brackets in the proper tense form:

1. The productivity challenge (to come) from both developed and developing areas of the world. 2. Currently the US worker (to work) more than his or her counterpart in other industrialized countries, and he or she also (to lead) the way in term of productivity. 3. A similar situation (to prevail) vis-à-vis the US`s largest trading partner, Canada, where labour productivity (to increase) at a faster rate in terms of value added per hour worked. 4. The measure, which basically (to devide) a country`s gross domestic product by the number of people employed in order to estimate the average output per worker, (not to take) account of all possible factors, but (to provide) a reliable indicator of worker efficiency in relation to overall economic growth. 5. Worldwide employment (to shift) from sectors that (to produce) goods (agriculture and industry) to the services-producing sector. 6. The government (not to be) insensitive to the growing disparities between women and men and (to try) to rectify the worst of them. 7. High male unemployment (to be) one fact among others, which increasingly (to push) women into the only role that society has deemed fit for women, as wife and mother. 8. The century of the labouring man (to come) to an end. 9. In a growing number of countries governments (to introduce) tax credits paid to “families” if members (to work) for an income. 10. With globalization, technological changes and the shifting balance of bargaining strength of workers and employers, more flexible labour relations (to spread) everywhere, while contrary to the expectations of 20th century policymakers employment (to become) increasingly informal.

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